Mughal Emperor AurangZeb

Reign
1658 - 1707
Full name
Abul Muzaffar Muhiuddin Muhammad Aurangzeb Alamgir
Titles
Al-Sultan al-Azam wal Khaqan al-Mukarram Abul Muzaffar Muhiuddin Muhammad Aurangzeb Bahadur Alamgir I, Padshah Ghazi
Born
4 November 1618(1618-11-04)
Birthplace
Dahod
Died
3 March 1707 (aged 88)
Place of death
Ahmednagar
Buried
Khuldabad
Predecessor
Shah Jahan
Successor
Bahadur Shah I
Wives
Nawab Raj Bai Begum, Dilras Bano Begam , Hira Bai Zainabadi Mahal , Aurangabadi Mahal , Udaipuri Mahal
Offspring
( Dilras Bano Begam),Zeb-un-Nissa, Zinat-un-Nissa, Muhammad Azam Shah,Mehr-un-Nissa, Muhammad Akbar,(Nawab Raj Bai Begum),Sultan Muhammad, Bahadur Shah I, Badr-un-Nissa,w. Aurangabadi Mahal Zabdat-un-Nissa,(w. Udaipuri Mahal),Muhammad Kam Baksh
Dynasty
Mughal
Father
Shah Jahan
Mother
Mumtaz Mahal
Religious beliefs
Islam

Muhi Uddin Muhammad Aurangzeb Bahadur Alamgir I, more commonly known as Aurangzeb (Persian: اورنگ‌زیب (full title: Al-Sultan al-Azam wal Khaqan al-Mukarram Abul Muzaffar Muhi ud-din Muhammad Aurangzeb Bahadur Alamgir I, Badshah Ghazi) (4 November, 1618 – 3 March 1707), also known by his chosen imperial title Alamgir I (Conqueror of the World) (Persian: عالمگیر), was the 6th Mughal Emperor whose reign lasted from 1658 until his death in 1707. Aurangzeb's reign as the Mughal monarch was marked by many wars of expansion.

Aurangzeb, having ruled most of the Indian subcontinent for nearly half a century, was the second longest reigning Mughal emperor after Akbar. In this period he successfully brought a larger area, notably in southern India, under Mughal rule than ever before. A devout Muslim, Aurangzeb tried to force all his people to follow the doctrines of Islam. He destroyed many Hindu and Sikh scriptures and works of art because he feared that they might be worshipped as idols.

Aurangzeb was the third son of the fifth Mughal emperor Shah Jahan and Mumtaz Mahal (Arjumand Bānū Begum). After a rebellion by his father, part of Aurangzeb's childhood was spent as a virtual hostage at his grandfather Jahangir's court. Muhammad Saleh Kamboh Salafi had been one of his childhood teachers.

After Jahangir's death in 1627, Aurangzeb returned to live with his parents.Shah Jahan followed the Mughal practice of assigning authority to his sons, and in 1634 put Aurangzeb in charge of the Deccan campaign. Following his success in 1636, Aurangzeb became Subahdar (governor) of the Deccan. At this time, he began building a new city near the former capital of Khirki which he named Aurangabad after himself. In 1637, he married Rabia Durrani. During this period the Deccan was relatively peaceful. In the Mughal court, however, Shah Jahan began to show greater and greater favoritism to his eldest son Dara Shikoh.

In 1644, Aurangzeb's sister Jahanara Begum was accidentally burned in Agra. This event precipitated a family crisis which had political consequences. Aurangzeb suffered his father's displeasure when he returned to Agra three weeks after the event, instead of immediately. Shah Jahan dismissed him as the governor of the Deccan. Aurangzeb later claimed (1654) that he had resigned in protest of his father favoring Dara.

in 1645, he was barred from the court for seven months. But later, Shah Jahan appointed him governor of Gujarat; he performed well and was rewarded. In 1647, Shah Jahan made him governor of Balkh and Badakhshan (in modern Afghanistan and Tajikistan), replacing Aurangzeb's ineffective brother Murad Baksh. These areas at the time were under attack from various forces and Aurangzeb's military skill proved successful.

He was appointed governor of Multan and Sindh, and began a protracted military struggle against the Safavid army in an effort to capture the city of Kandahar. He failed, and fell again into his father's disfavour.

In 1652, Aurangzeb was re-appointed governor of the Deccan. In an effort to extend the empire, Aurangzeb attacked the border kingdoms of Golconda (1657), and Bijapur (1658). Both times, Shah Jahan called off the attacks near the moment of Aurangzeb's triumph. In each case Dara Shikoh interceded and arranged a peaceful end to the attacks.

In a sudden reversal, Aurangzeb arrested his brother Murad, whose former supporters defected to Aurangzeb in return for rich gifts

With Shuja and Murad disposed of, and with his father Shah Jahan confined in Agra, Aurangzeb pursued Dara, chasing him across the north-western bounds of the empire. After a series of battles, defeats and retreats, Dara was betrayed by one of his generals, who arrested and bound him. In 1659, Aurangzeb arranged his formal coronation in Delhi. He had Dara openly marched in chains back to Delhi; when Dara finally arrived, Aurangzeb had him executed on August 30, 1659. Having secured his position, Aurangzeb kept an already weakening Shah Jahan under house arrest at the Agra Fort. Shah Jahan died in 1666.

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Rebellions

 

  • In 1667, the Yusufzai Pashtuns revolted near Peshawar and were crushed.
  • In 1669, the Jat kings of Bharatpur around Mathura revolted and led to the formation of Bharatpur state after his death.
  • In 1670, Chhatrapati Shivaji had opened the war against the Mughals. He opposed Aurangzeb with full strength and had initially stopped him from entering the Deccan.Till Shivaji was alive, Aurangzeb did not invade the Deccan but soon after Shivaji's death, he attacked the Maratha kingdom. Shivaji's son, Sambhaji successfully defended his kingdom and did not let Aurangzeb win even a single significant victory. However by 1689 Auranzeb's armies had captured Sambhaji alive. Later Sambhaji was tortured and executed. But even after Sambhaji's death, Aurangzeb could never conquer the Maratha Kingdom completely ever in his 27 years of war in Deccan
  • In 1672, the Satnami, a sect concentrated in an area near Delhi, under the leadership of Bhirbhan and some Satnami, took over the administration of Narnaul, but they were eventually crushed upon Auranzeb's personal intervention with very few escaping alive.