Akbar (1556-1605) , Best Mughal Emperor

Babur's grandson, Akbar, was the greatest Mughal emperor, expanding the Empire, integrating the Hindus, and reforming the government The chief builder of the Mughal empire was Babur’s grandson Akbar. During his long reign, from 1556 to 1605, he created a strong central government, earning the title Akbar the Great.Akbar was a leader of unusual abilities. Although a Muslim, he won the support of Hindu subjects through his policy of toleration. He opened government jobs to Hindus of all castes and treated Hindu princes as his partners in ruling the vast empire. He ended the tax on non-Muslims and himself married a Hindu princess. Akbar could not read or write, but he consulted leaders of many faiths, including Muslims, Hindus, Buddhists, and Christians. Like the early Indian leader Asoka, he hoped to promote religious harmony through toleration.
By recognizing India’s diversity, Akbar placed Mughal power on a firm footing. Akbar strengthened his empire in other ways as well. To improve government, he used paid officials in place of hereditary officeholders. He modernized the army, encouraged international trade, standardized weights and measures, and introduced land reforms. Adapted Islam to non-Muslims Religious toleration Zoroastrianism, Buddhism, Christianity Jesuits “Divine Faith”.At age 13, Akbar was forced upon the throne and immediately faced threats from Mughal enemies…he defeated them easily! Akbar was not a a drunkard like his grandfather nor clumsy like his father…he became a wise and strong administrator…he reconciled with the Hindus in the kingdom, preaching tolerance…he encouraged intermarriage between Hindus and Muslims…abolished the jizya…promoted Hindus into high ranking positions in government…created a new religion, Din-i-Ilahi, a combination of Islam and Hinduism Akbar also instituted several key reforms for Indian society, most notable of those were driven to improve the status of women…he prohibited sati, encouraged a widow to remarry, and setup special market days for women secluded by purdah Unfortunately, when Akbar died in 1605, most of his reforms and his religion, died with him.
Akbar had an inquisitive mind, and he turned to the ulama, established a religious assembly hall to hold discussions about Islam. After much consideration Akbar began to believe that no single region including Islam ,held all the answers. Developed his own faith call Din Ilahi. Din Ilahi was a mixture of the other religions Akbar had studied from those debates. Religion never caught on .He encouraged art and architecture.Good fighter but believed in diplomacy – picture with Jesuits at court
Tolerated and encouraged toleration of Hindus.
Historical Date Of India
Sikh maharaja Ranjit Singh establisheses the Sikh kingdom in Punjab, Kashmir and Jammu with political capital in Lahore and religious capital in Amritsar
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Britain takes Delhi from the Marathas .
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Britain annexe kingdom of Kandy and unifies the whole of Ceylon and begins ferrying Tamil workers from India
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Nepal becomes a British protectorat.
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Britain annexes Sikh kingdom of Punjab
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the British build the first Indian railway
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Bengali soldiers launch "Indian Mutiny", the first war of independence
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power on the Indian colony is transferred to the British government
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Bahadur Shah II dies, the Mughal dynasty ends and India becomes a British colony .
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IndianNational Congress is founded
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Gandhi moves to South Africa
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British troops occupy Tibet
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Akbar become the new Mughal ruler at the age of 14. Regent and his mother ruled in his name for 4 years Akbar was an ambitious and noble commander Built the largest army ever in the empire. Helped to conquer nearly all of modern-day northern India and Pakistan. Great administrator developed a centralized government It delegated 15 provinces each under a governor and each province into districts and each district was further sub-divided into smaller sections. Best known for tolerance of his subjects (especially Hindus) Removed poll taxes on Hindus Invited religious scholars to debate him in his private chambers.