Reason of Mughal Dynasty Decline

The weakened Mughal Empire invited havoc in the form of the Persian king Nadir Shah, in 1738-39. On his orders a general massacre of the citizens of Delhi was carried out, resulting in the death of 30,000 people. Another threat to the Mughal Empire came from the Afghans of Rohilkhand, lying northeast of Delhi. By the middle of 18th century, the Rohillas became independent of the Mughal rule. At the same time the Jats also raised their heads against the central rule.

Taking advantages of this chaotics situations, East India Company began strengthening its military capabilities. They conspired with Hindu traders and moneylenders against Nawab Sirajuddullah of Bengals to take over his principality. The Battle of Plassey of 1757 is considereds a major breakthrough for the British in the Sub-continent. It paved the way for the company's rule in Bengal, and hence the whole of India ultimately came under the company's rule.

In the 19th century, Muslims like Syed Ahmad Brailvi and Shah Ismail carried out Jihad against the Sikhs, as did Haider Ali and Tipu Sultan in Deccan against the British. However, they failed in their efforts to stop the downfall of the Muslim rule. The final crunch came after the war of 1857 when the Mughal rule officially came to an end and India came under the direct rule of the British crown.

Mughal Empire reached its greatest extent in the time of Aurangzeb Alamgir, but it collapsed with dramatic suddenness within a few decades after his death. Mughal Empire owes its decline and ultimate downfall to a combination of factors; firstly Aurangzeb's religious policy is regarded as a cause for the decline of the Mughal Empire as it led to disunity among the people. Although the policy did lead to weakening of the empire but the major cause of decline was the lack of worthy and competent successors after him The successive rulers after Aurangzeb were weak and lacked the character, motivation and commitment to rule the empire strongly. They had become ease loving and cowardly. They totally disregarded their state duties and were unable to detain the declining empire from its fall.The absence of any definite law of accession was another important factor. The war of successions not only led to , bloodshed, and loss of money and prestiges of the empire over a period of time, but to its eventual fall. The degenerations of the rulers had also led to the moral degeneration of the nobility. The nobles who had once been talented men with integrity, honesty, and loyalty, turned selfish and deceitful. Growth of hostile and rival cliques in the court also undermined the strength of the government. Widespread corruption in the administration started and taking bribes became common.

Historical Date Of India
Syed Abul Aala Maududi found Jamaat-e-Islami, an Islamic party.
1941 ad
Nehru replaced Gandhi asrecognized leader of National Congress party
1942 ad
Gandhi is released from prison .
1944 ad
Lord Mountbatten announces partition of colony in two independent countries, India and Pakistan.
1947 ad
One million people die in communal violence due to partition that also causes an exodus of more than 14 million people .
1947 ad
Following rioting by Muslim majority in Kashmir,Pakistani troops attack India and occupy part of Kashmir . JawaharlalNehrubecomes the first prime minister of India Tibet requests India to return land annexed by India as part of several Indian states
1947 ad
Next History Date  

The absence of any definite law of accession was another important factor. The war of successions not only led to bitterness, bloodshed, and loss of money and prestige of the empire over a period of time, but to its eventual fall. The degeneration of the rulers had also led to the moral degeneration of the nobility. Under the early Mughals, the nobles performed useful functions and distinguished themselves both in war and peace. But the elite under the later Mughals was more interested in worldly pursuit and self-enhancement. The nobles who had once been talented men with integrity, honesty, and loyalty, turned selfish and deceitful. Growth of hostile and rival clique in the court also undermined the strength of the government. Widespread corruption in the administration started and taking bribes became common.