Mughal Emperor Humayun

December, 1530 - February 22, 1556.
Full name
Al-Sultan al-'Azam wal Khaqan al-Mukarram, Jam-i-Sultanat-i-haqiqi wa Majazi, Sayyid al-Salatin, Abu'l Muzaffar Nasir ud-din Muhammad Humayun Padshah Ghazi, Zillu'llah.
17 March 1508(1508-03-17)
4 March 1556 (aged 47)
Place of death
Humayun's Tomb
Consort to
Hamida Banu Begum Bega Begum ,Bigeh Begum , Haji Begum , Mah-chuchak,Miveh Jan ,Shahzadi Khanum
Akbar son, Mirza Muhammad Hakim son ,Aqiqeh Begum daughter Bakshi Banu Begum daughter,Bakhtunissa Begum daughter
Royal House
House of Timur
Maham Begum

Babur's eldest son and successor, Humayun, was 22 years old when his father passed away. Humayun lacked the experience and the tough fiber necessary to consolidate a new dynasty. the first decade of his rule brought a steady erosion of Mughal authority in northern India. In particular, Humayun had to deal with the determined hostility of the Afghans who were still allied with the dispossessed Lodi regime.

Humayun was defeated by insurrections of nobles from the old Lodi regime. In 1540, the Mughal domain came under the control of one of those nobles, Farid Khan Sur, who assumed the regional name of Sher Shah Sur. Humayun would spend the next 15 years in exile in Sind, Iran, and then Afghanistan. During this exile, Humayun's Persian wife, Hamida Begum, a native of Turbat-I Shaykh Jam in Khurasan, gave birth to the future emperor Akbar.

Humayun was the eldest son of Babur. He had three younger brothers, Kamran, Askari and Hindal. Born on March 6, 1508, at Kabul, he learnt Turkish, Arabic and Persian at a very young age. He assisted his father in the governance of the country. In 1520, he was appointed the Governor of Badakshan at the age of 12 years. When Babur invaded India in 1526, Humayun joined him. Humayun won a maiden victory in this campaign. He also participating in the battle of Kanwaha. After Babur's death in 1530, he was chosen as his successor. Humayun ascended the throne at Agra on December 30, 1530, at the age of 23, four days after his father's death.

Humayun inherited an empire barely held together by force of arms. It lacked a consolidated civil administration. He faced numerous problems right from the start. He faced troubles from the Afghan nobles, the Rajputs, and most of all from his brothers who were mean and disloyal to him. Unable to judge the growing power of Sher Shah, Humayun was defeated in the battle of Kanauj in 1540. He became a fugitive and escaped towards Iran via Sindh.

While in Sindh, he married a young Persian girl, Hamida Bano, who joined him in his wanderings. A year later in Umerkot in upper Sindh, his first son Akbar was born. Legend has it that Humayun had nothing to give to his followers at this happy occasion except some musk. The musk was broken into pieces and passed among his men. He is reported to have said that one day the fame of the prince would spread like the smell of the musk.

For a period of 15 years, the Mughal Empire lay dormant and Sher Shah founded the Suri 1555 Humayun returned once again, and by his sheer perseverance, was able to recover his kingdom.

Although lacking his father's abilities, Humayun was a cultivated gentleman. He was unrivalled in the science of astrology and mathematics. he was very kind towards his brothers; and despite their treachery, forgave them again and again. He possessed a very charitable and magnificent personality.

Although Humayun had recovered his kingdom, he was not destined to rule it for long. In January 1556, he met his tragic end by slipping from the famous building known as Din Panah.

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Dargah--Tomb of Sufi Saint

Sher Shah built a lot of other monuments around Delhi. In 1541 he built the dargah (tomb of a Sufi saint) over the grave of the sainted Bakhtiyar Kaki, popularly known as Qutub Sahib, near the Qutub Minar.

Construction of The Magnificent Humayun Tomb.

Humayun started living in Dinpanah again. He converted the Sher Mandal into his library, again an ill-fated decision, since he slipped to his death from the stairs of this pavilion. king’s grief-stricken wife Hamida Banu undertook the construction of Humayun’s Tomb in 1565.
Power Passed Over To Akbar After Humayun
Sher Mandal Tower
Sher Shah had built the Sher Mandal a two-storeyed octagonal tower in red sandstone and the Qila-i-Khona Masjid, an exquisite mosque inside the Purana Qila.
Formation of The Seventh City of Delhi
Humayun and Sher Shah Suri, the defeater and the defeated, both built the seventh city of Delhi. Humayun started it as Dinpanah or Purana Qila and Sher Shah Suri finished it as Delhi Sher Shahi.In 1540 Sher Shah Suri took over the reigns of Dinpanah. It took 15 years and Sher Shah’s death for Humayun to defeat and regain control of his city.
Humayun- A Charming Person But No Warrior
To be fair to the poor fellow, he was not king material at all. Contemporary accounts describe him as an affable, charming person – excellent at making parties go, a great friend and a good companion. But definitely not a warrior.

Humayun Main Battle

Sher Shah Suri