First Battle of Panipat from Baburnama

 
Date 21 April 1526
Location Panipat, Haryana, India
Result Decisive Mughal victory
Territorial
changes
Delhi Sultanate annexed by Mughals
Belligerents

Mughal Empire with Delhi Sultanate

Commanders
Babur Sultan Ibrahim Lodi
Strength
12,000 Mughals & Afghans,
5,000 allied Indian troops,
24 field artillery
130,000-140,000 troops,
300 war elephants
The first battle of Panipat took place in northern India, and marked the beginning of the Mughal Empire. This was one of the earliest battles involving gunpowder firearms and field artillery. In 1526, the forces of Zahir al-Din Muhammad Babur, the ruler of Kabul and of Timurid descent, defeated the much larger army of Ibrahim Lodhi, the ruler of the large North Indian Delhi Sultanate.The battle was fought on April 21 near the small village of Panipat, in the present day Indian state of Haryana, an area that has been the site of a number of decisive battles for the control of Northern India since the twelfth century.

The handsome Ibrahim Lodhi multiplied his rigors at Delhi. Mian Bhua the vazir of his father was first thrown in prison then given a cup of poisoned wine. Noblemen like Azam Humanyun (Not Babur's son) and Hussayn Khan Farmuli were assassinated. Daulat Khan Lodhi governor of Lahore was ordered to appear at Delhi,he excused himself and sent his son in his place. Sultan took his son to prison and was shown the bodies of rebels hanging from the walls. "now you know what awaits those who disobey me" said Ibrahim Lodhi to the frightened boy.

Daulat Khan appealed to Babur. "For 30 years " Babur said to him "you have eaten the salt of Lord Ibrahim and of his father, why this?". "It is true that my father and grand father have spent many years in their service,but this sultan prosecutes most faithful of his vassals. Without cause he has put to death 23 of his best men and ruined their families. That is why the nobles have sent me to you to convey their homage,they wait you anxiously."

The first Battle of Panipat gave a death blow to the Lodhi empire and marked the end of the Delhi Sultanate's rule in India. It establishment of Mughal Empire in India. Mongol prince Zahir-ud-Din Muhammad, known as Babur, had promised to help Daulat Khan Lodhi, Governor of Lahore, to fight the Sultan of Delhi Ibrahim Lodhi in 1523 and made many raids into Punjab. Babur, after occupying the whole of Panjab by 1525 AD, marched towards Delhi. In November 1525 he set out to meet the Sultan of Delhi. Passage of Indus took place on 15th December. Babur had about 12,000 soldiers. Crossing Sutluj at Roper and reached Ambala without meeting any resistance. On April 1st Babur reached Panipat.Rumors came that Sultan was coming with an army of 100,000 and 1000 war elephants. Afghan Sultan of Delhi, Ibrahim Lodhi advanced from Delhi to meet the invader. Babur had a strong artillery which was effectively pressed into service.battle started at six in the morning. Sultan Ibrahim Lodhi advanced rapidly . At about 400 yards Babur's Cannons opened fire, noise and smoke from the artillery terrified the Afghans and the attack lost momentum.

Though Ibrahim Lodhi had elephants and huge army, he did not know how to control them. Babur had guns and he used them to scare the elephants. As a result the elephants went out of control and trampled Lodhi's own army. He lost a lot of soldiers like that. Ibrahim Lodhi was finally abandoned by his generals and advisors and was left to die on the battlefield. This battle was the turning point in the history of Delhi as it marked the beginning of one of the most important empires in India, the Mughal dynasty. Most of his army stretching behind up to a mile never saw action. Battle ended in about 3 hours with the death of Ibrahim Lodhi who was at forefront.

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