The Battle of Plassey

Lord Clive meeting with Mir Jafar after the Battle of Plassey, by Francis Hayman (c. 1762).
June 23, 1757
Palashi, West Bengal, India
Decisive victory for the British East India Company
Bengal annexed by British East India Company
British East India Company Siraj Ud Daulah (Nawab of Bengal)
French East India Company
Colonel Robert Clive
Major Kilpatrick
Major Grant
Major Eyre Coote
Captain Gaupp
Captain Richard Knox
Diwan Mohan Lal (C-in-C)
Mir Madan - Vanguard
Mir Jafar Ali Khan -Cavalry (defector)
Khuda-Yar Lutuf Khan (defector)
Rai Durlabh (defector)
Monsieur Sinfray - Artillery
950 European soldiers
2,100 Indian sepoys
100 gunners
9 cannon (eight six-pounders and a howitzer)
50,000 soldiers initially (but only 35,000 of them participated in battle),a
53 cannon
Casualties and losses
22 killed
(7 Europeans, 16 natives)
53 wounded
(13 Europeans and 36 natives)[citation needed]
500 killed and wounded
a Out of the initial 35,000 infantry and 15,000 cavalry, 35,000 of them were withheld by Mir Jafar, leaving 15,000 men to participate in the battle.

The Battle of Plassey 23 June 1757, was a decisive British East India Company victory over the Nawab of Bengal and his French allies, establishing Company rule in India which expanded over much of South Asia for the next 190 years. The battle took place at Palashi, West Bengal, on the riverbanks of the Bhagirathi River, about 150 km north of Calcutta, near Murshidabad, then the capital of the Nawab of Bengal. The opponents were Siraj Ud Daulah, the last independent Nawab of Bengal, and the British East India Company.

The battle was waged during the Seven Years' War (1756–1763) and in a mirror of their European rivalry, the French East India Company sent a small contingent to fight against the British. Siraj-ud-Daulah had a numerically superior force and made his stand at Plassey. British, worried about being outnumbered and so promising huge amounts in bribes, reached out to Siraj-ud-Daulah's demoted army chief - Mir Jafar along with others such as Khuda-Yar Lutuf, Jagat Seths (Mahtab Chand and Swarup Chand), Umichand, Maharaja Krishna Nath and Rai Durlabh. Mir Jafar thus assembled his troops near the battlefield, but made no move to actually join the battle. Siraj-ud-Daulah's army was defeated by roughly 3050 soldiers of Robert Clive. Some historians argue that it was Mir Jafar's treachery that caused this defeat. This is questionable since even without Mir Jafar's soldiers who were around 15000 in number, Siraj-ud-Daulah's army numbered about 35000 troops against 1100 British troops under Robert Clive. Siraj-ud-Daulah fled, eventually to be captured and executed. As a result, the entire province of Bengal fell to the Company, with Mir Jafar appointed as the Company's puppet Nawab.

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Mir Zafar Fate....

Mir Jafar, for his betrayal of the Nawab Siraj Ud Daulah and alliance with the British, was installed as the new Nawab, while Siraj Ud Daulah was captured on 2 July in Murshidabad as he attempted to escape further north. He was later executed on the order of Mir Jafar's son Miran. Amina Begum (Siraj Ud Daulah's mother);Ghaseti Begum (Siraj Ud Daulah's aunt) and other powerful women were transferred to a prison in distant Dhaka, where they were eventually drowned in the river on pretext of taking them to Murshidabad in safety. This diabolical murder was the brain child of Miran as well who was in Bihar at the time, pursuing Nazim Khadim Hussain Khan, his cousin and governor of Purnia. Mir Jafar chafed under the British supervision, and so asked the Dutch East India Company to intervene. They sent seven ships and about 700 sailors up the Hoogley to their settlement, but the British led by Colonel Forde managed to defeat them at Chinsura on 25 November 1759. Thereafter, Mir Jafar was deposed as Nawab (1760) and Mir Kasim Ali Khan, (Mir Jafar's son-in-law) was appointed as Nawab. Mir Kasim showed signs of independence and was defeated in the Battle of Buxar (1764), after which full political control shifted to the Company. Mir Jafar was re-appointed and remained the titular Nawab until his death in 1765, though all actual power was exercised by the Company.